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Table 3 Comparisons between intervention and control conditions

From: Health evaluation and referral assistant: a randomized controlled trial to improve smoking cessation among emergency department patients

  Intervention
(n = 210)
Control
(n = 211)
ED clinician (MD/RN) counselinga
 MD/RN asked about tobacco use 172 (81.9 %) 165 (78.2 %)
 MD/RN counseled participant to quit 73 (34.8 %) 68 (32.2 %)
 Received educational materials 8 (3.8 %) 14 (6.6 %)
 Received a smoking cessation referral 5 (2.4 %) 11 (5.2 %)
Outpatient smoking cessation treatment
 Contact with tobacco treatment provider
 GEE odds ratio = 2.69 (95 % CI 1.65–4.39), p < 0.001
  Contact at 1 month 35 (16.7 %) 16 (7.6 %)
  Contact at 3 months 48 (22.9 %) 27 (12.8 %)
 Initiated treatment (evaluated by tobacco treatment provider)
 GEE odds ratio = 1.69 (95 % CI 0.86–3.31), p = 0.13
  Treatment initiation at 1 month 10 (4.8 %) 8 (3.8 %)
  Treatment initiation at 3 months 21 (10.0 %) 14 (6.6 %)
 Treatment engagement at either time 8 (3.8 %) 7 (3.3 %)
 Treatment completion 7 (3.3 %) 6 (2.8 %)
Smoking behavior
 Used tobacco (since ED visit)
 GEE odds ratio = 0.98 (95 % CI 0.62–1.55), p = 0.93
 Abstinent for first month (since visit) 13 (6.2 %) 19 (9.0 %)
 Abstinent for 3 months (since visit) 8 (3.8 %) 9 (4.3 %)
 At least one quit attempt at 1 month 68 (32.4 %) 72 (34.1 %)
 At least one quit attempt at 3 months 105 (50.0 %) 118 (55.9 %)
 Attempted to reduce use at 1 month 125 (59.5 %) 122 (57.8 %)
 Attempted to reduce use at 3 months 150 (71.4 %) 154 (73.0 %)
  1. All percentages and analyses use the ITT principal of worst outcome for missing values
  2. aED clinician behavior assessment included behaviors over and above the materials provided as part of the research study. All patients in both groups had tobacco assessed as part of the study and received a referral list. The control group received a pre-printed list, while the intervention group received a personally tailored list, as well as a dynamic referral if desired