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Table 1 Maternal characteristics by calendar year for 332 pregnancies

From: Prenatal treatment for opioid dependency: observations from a large inner-city clinic

Characteristic 2006
(N = 33)
2007
(N = 53)
2008
(N = 69)
2009
(N = 84)
2010
(N = 93)
Maternal age (years) 27.4 (6.0) 28.8 (5.8) 28.6 (4.7) 27.2 (4.8) 27.3 (4.7)
Gestational age at presentation for care (weeks) 18.6 (9.1) 17.0 (8.0) 18.7 (9.7) 15.3 (7.7) 16.4 (9.9)
Number of prenatal care visits 8.9 (4.9) 9.6 (4.6) 9.6 (5.0) 9.4 (4.4) 9.3 (4.3)
Initial daily dose of methadone (mg) 70.9 (35.1) 66.1 (36.4) 74.2 (49.2) 66.6 (34.0) 64.9 (29.4)
Daily dose of methadone at delivery (mg) 88.5 (36.8) 83.8 (40.4) 94.4 (52.7) 91.0 (40.8) 88.0 (35.1)
Initial daily dose of buprenorphine (mg) 11.6 (7.0) 10.1 (4.0) 13.2 (6.5) 12.2 (7.2)
Daily dose of buprenorphine at delivery (mg) 11.4 (8.4) 14.1 (6.4) 14.1 (6.1) 16.8 (8.4)
Prescribed psychiatric medications
 SSRIs 3 (9.1) 4 (7.6) 14 (20.3) 13 (15.5) 20 (21.5)
 Benzodiazepines 5 (15.2) 10 (18.9) 15 (21.7) 15 (17.9) 20 (21.5)
 Antipsychotics 0 (0) 4 (7.6) 4 (5.8) 4 (4.8) 7 (7.5)
 Other 2 (6.1) 1 (1.9) 5 (7.3) 8 (9.5) 10 (10.8)
Smoked cigarettes 25 36 42 59 59
Hepatitis C infected 19 27 38 48 48
≥1 urine screen 31 (93.9) 50 (94.3) 69 (98.6) 79 (94.0) 88 (94.6)
≥1 positive urine screen 15 (48.4) 22 (44.0) 38 (55.9) 41 (51.9) 43 (48.9)
Urine screen positive fora
 Cocaine 10 (32.3) 11 (22.0) 16 (23.5) 18 (22.8) 16 (18.2)
 Opioids 11 (35.5) 14 (28.0) 26 (38.2) 32 (40.5) 44 (38.6)
 Benzodiazepines 1 (3.2) 4 (8.0) 9 (13.2) 8 (10.1) 3 (3.4)
 Amphetamines 1 (3.2) 1 (2.0) 3 (4.4) 2 (2.5) 3 (3.4)
Vaginal delivery 16 (48.5) 27 (50.9) 38 (55.1) 53 (63.1) 62 (66.7)
Cesarean section 17 (55.5) 26 (49.1) 31 (44.9) 31 (36.9) 31 (33.3)
Anesthesia during delivery 25 (75.7) 48 (90.5) 60 (86.9) 76 (90.4) 81 (87.0)
  1. Missing data: Initial daily dose of opioid agonist therapy, one women treated with buprenorphine in 2008, one women treated with buprenorphine in 2009, one women treated with buprenorphine in 2010, one women treated with methadone in 2006, two women treated with methadone in 2007, one woman treated with methadone in 2009; Gestational age at first prenatal visit, two women in 2006, six women in 2007, three women in 2008, five women in 2009, two women in 2010. Smoking, 6 women in 2006, 10 women in 2007, 16 women in 2008, 15 women in 2009, 18 women in 2010; Hepatitis C, 10 women in 2006, 14 women in 2007, 15 women in 2008, 17 women in 2009, 18 women in 2010. Anesthesia, 5 women in 2006, 2 women in 2007, 3 women in 2008, 3 women in 2009, 3 women in 2010
  2. Mean ± standard deviation or number of pregnancies and percent
  3. aPatients with the prescribed medication not counted as a positive test result