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Table 2 Maternal characteristics by prenatal opioid agonist treatment for 332 pregnancies

From: Prenatal treatment for opioid dependency: observations from a large inner-city clinic

Characteristic Mean and standard deviation or number and proportion Mean difference or risk ratio and 95% CI (adjusted for year of birth)
Buprenorphine (N = 82) Methadone (N = 245) Buprenorphine and methadone (N = 5) Buprenorphine versus methadone
Maternal age (years) 28.1 ± 5.1 27.7 ± 5.1 27.2 ± 3.3 0.76 (−0.55, 2.07)
Year of deliverya
 2009–2010 60 (73.2) 114 (46.5) 3 (60.0) 1.57 (1.30, 1.90)
 2006–2008 22 (26.8) 131 (53.5) 2 (40.0) 1.0
Number of fetuses
 Singleton 80 (97.6) 241 (98.4) 5 (100)
 Twin 2 (2.4) 4 (1.6) 0 (0)  
 Prenatal care 82 (100) 241 (0.99) 5 (100)
 Gestational age at presentation for care (weeks) 16.4 ± 8.9 17.2 ± 8.9 11.8 ± 8.6 −0.16 (−2.46, 2.13)
 Number of prenatal care visits 11.5 ± 4.7 8.7 ± 4.3 11.6 ± 2.2 3.06 (1.92, 4.20)
 Initial daily dose of opioid agonist therapy (mg) 12.0 ± 6.5 68.3 ± 37.4 12.0 ± 4.0
Stopped agonist therapy during pregnancy
 Yes 2 (2.4) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 No 80 (97.6) 245 (100) 5 (100)  
Daily dose of opioid agonist therapy at delivery (mg) 15.1 ± 7.5 89.3 ± 41.7 77.0 ± 28.9
Smoked cigarettes 54 (65.9) 164 (66.9) 4 (80.0)
Hepatitis C infected 32 (39.0) 134 (54.7) 4 (80.0)
Prescribed SSRIs 14 (17.1) 38 (15.5) 2 (40.0) 1.01 (0.57, 1.79)
1.0
Prescribed benzodiazepines 14 (17.1) 51 (20.8) 0 (0) 0.81 (0.47, 1.39)
1.0
Prescribed antipsychotics 1 (1.2) 18 (7.4) 0 (0) 0.15 (0.02, 1.12)
1.0
Other prescribed psychiatric medications 9 (11.0) 15 (6.1) 2 (40.0) 1.60 (0.72, 3.60)
1.0
Urine screen
 ≥1 78 (95.1) 233 (95.1) 5 (100) 1.02 (0.95, 1.09)
 None 4 (4.9) 12 (4.9) 0 (0) 1.0
Positive urine screen
 ≥1 31 (39.7) 123 (52.8) 5 (100) 0.74 (0.55, 1.01)
 None 47 (60.3) 220 (47.2) 0 (0) 1.0
Cocaine urine screen
 Positive 5 (6.4) 63 (27.0) 3 (60.0) 0.24 (0.10, 0.57)
 Negative 73 (93.6) 170 (73.0) 2 (40.0) 1.0
Non-prescribed opioid urine screen
 Positive 22 (28.2) 90 (38.6) 5 (100) 0.69 (0.46, 1.02)
 Negative 56 (71.8) 143 (61.4) 0 (0) 1.0
Non-prescribed benzodiazepines urine screen
 Positive 7 (9.0) 18 (7.7) 0 (0) 1.27 (0.54, 2.98)
 Negative 71 (91.0) 215 (92.3) 5 (100) 1.0
Non-prescribed amphetamine urine screen
 Positive 3 (3.9) 7 (3.0) 0 (0) 1.34 (0.34, 5.31)
 Negative 75 (96.1) 226 (97.0) 5 (100) 1.0
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal 55 (67.1) 138 (56.3) 3 (60.0) 1.15 (0.95, 1.39)
 Cesarean section 27 (32.9) 107 (43.7) 2 (40.0) 1.0
Anesthesia during delivery
 Yes 76 (93.8) 209 (90.9) 5 (100) 1.03 (0.96, 1.11)
 No 5 (6.2) 21 (9.1) 0 (0) 1.0
  1. Missing data: Initial daily dose of opioid agonist therapy, three women treated with buprenorphine, six women treated with methadone; Gestational age at first prenatal visit, one woman treated with methadone. Number of prenatal care visits, two women treated with methadone; Smoking, 12 women treated with buprenorphine, 52 women treated with methadone, 1 woman treated with methadone and buprenorphine; Hepatitis C infection, 11 women treated with buprenorphine, 62 women treated with methadone, 1 woman treated with methadone and buprenorphine; Anesthesia, one women treated with buprenorphine, and 15 women treated with methadone
  2. aUnadjusted result