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Table 3 Neonatal characteristics by year of birth

From: Prenatal treatment for opioid dependency: observations from a large inner-city clinic

Characteristic 2006
(N = 33)
2007
(N = 53)
2008
(N = 69)
2009
(N = 84)
2010
(N = 93)
Prenatal opioid agonist therapy exposure
 Methadone 32 (97.0) 48 (90.6) 51 (79.3) 62 (73.8) 52 (55.9)
 Buprenorphine 1 (3.3) 5 (9.4) 16 (23.2) 22 (26.2) 38 (40.9)
 Methadone and buprenorphine 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (2.9) 0 (0) 3 (3.2)
Length of hospitalization (days) 23.2 ± 10.3 24.2 ± 12.7 24.1 ± 12.9 21.9 ± 11.1 20.8 ± 10.9
Pharmacologically treated for NAS 25 (75.8) 43 (81.1) 62 (89.9) 72 (85.7) 80 (86.0)
Age at NAS treatment Initiation (days) 2.5 ± 2.1 2.4 ± 1.9 2.9 ± 3.1 2.0 ± 1.7 1.9 ± 1.4
First-line NAS treatment
 Morphine 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1.6) 67 (93.1) 80 (100.0)
 DTO 25 (100) 43 (100) 61 (98.4) 5 (6.9) 0 (0)
Total morphine used to treat NAS, mg per kg birth weighta 6.0 ± 3.7 6.7 ± 6.2 3.6 ± 3.5 8.9 ± 8.4 6.4 ± 5.4
Additional NAS treatment with
  Phenobarbital
9 (36.0) 9 (20.9) 10 (16.1) 23 (31.9) 18 (22.5)
 Clonidine 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (2.8) 8 (10.0)
Length of NAS treatment (days) 20.6 ± 9.6 20.6 ± 10.2 19.5 ± 10.1 19.2 ± 9.5 17.5 ± 7.8
Peak Finnegan score among neonates treated for NAS 13.9 ± 2.8 13.3 ± 3.5 11.9 ± 2.6 12.9 ± 3.0 11.9 ± 2.5
Gestational age at birth (weeks) 37.9 ± 1.8 38.7 ± 2.2 38.0 ± 2.5 38.2 ± 2.5 38.7 ± 2.3
Preterm birth (<37 weeks) 7 (21.2) 6 (11.3) 17 (24.6) 16 (19.1) 12 (12.9)
Birth weight (g) 2895.8 ± 373.1 2786.6 ± 728.0 2807.9 ± 599.6 2898.5 ± 652.3 2974.2 ± 580.2
  1. Missing data: Birth weight, one neonate; Length of stay, one neonate; Total mg of morphine per kg of birth weight: one neonate; Peak Finnegan Score, twelve neonates
  2. NAS neonatal abstinence syndrome, DTO diluted tincture of opium
  3. aMorphine dose equivalent determined for DTO treated neonates