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Table 3 Hazard ratios of mortality comparing moderate- and high-risk relative to lower-risk alcohol use among black, Hispanic, and white VA patients living with HIV: overall and by race/ethnicity

From: Racial/ethnic differences in the association between alcohol use and mortality among men living with HIV

Alcohol use categories Iterative modeling strategy Overall Black Hispanic White
(n = 17,239) (n = 8518) (n = 1354) (n = 7376)
HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
Lower-risk   Ref
Moderate-risk Model 1a 1.37 (1.23, 1.53) 1.17 (1.00, 1.36) 1.63 (1.06, 2.49) 1.60 (1.37, 1.88)
Model 2b 1.39 (1.25, 1.54) 1.20 (1.03, 1.40) 1.64 (1.07, 2.51) 1.59 (1.35, 1.86)
Model 3c 1.34 (1.21, 1.50) 1.15 (0.99, 1.34) 1.56 (1.02, 2.39) 1.56 (1.33, 1.84)
Model 4d 1.26 (1.13, 1.40) 1.08 (0.92, 1.26) 1.36 (0.89, 2.08) 1.50 (1.27, 1.76)
High-risk Model 1a 2.04 (1.77, 2.35) 1.68 (1.39, 2.04) 2.80 (1.68, 4.66) 2.55 (2.03, 3.20)
Model 2b 2.11 (1.83, 2.43) 1.66 (1.37, 2.02) 2.65 (1.59, 4.41) 2.85 (2.27, 3.58)
Model 3c 1.92 (1.66, 2.21) 1.52 (1.25, 1.85) 2.49 (1.49, 4.15) 2.61 (2.08, 3.29)
Model 4d 1.62 (1.40, 1.88) 1.35 (1.11, 1.64) 2.14 (1.28, 3.58) 2.01 (1.59, 2.55)
  1. Interactions between alcohol use categories and racial/ethnic groups were all significant (p < 0.001)
  2. Italicsed results are significant at p value < 0.05
  3. aModel 1 is unadjusted
  4. bModel 2 is adjusted for age
  5. cModel 3 is adjusted for age and CD4 count
  6. dModel 4 is adjusted for age, disease severity (CD4 count), receipt of HAART, and comorbidities (non-AIDS related Cancers (bladder, breast, buccal cavity and pharynx, digestive system, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, ill-defined cancer, kidney, leukemia, male genital system, melanomas, non-epithelial skin cancer, penile, prostate, stomach, testicular, ureter, urinary system), lung disease (COPD, asthma, or other lung disease), cardiovascular disease (congestive heart failure, MI/CAD, peripheral vascular disease, ischemic stroke, stroke), hypertension, diabetes, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, anxiety, psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, other psychosis), PSTD, BMI, drug use, and lifetime tobacco use