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Table 1 Post-release opioid-related overdose mortality: areas of further research

From: A conceptual model for understanding post-release opioid-related overdose risk

Topic Area of inquiry
Investigation of mechanisms
Chronic pain Prevalence and self-medication hypothesis
HIV Rate of post-release opioid-related overdose and living with HIV
Trauma Rate of post-release opioid-related overdose and trauma exposure
Race Race and opioid use disorder treatment and OAT access
Suicidality Rate of post-release opioid-related overdose and suicidality
Mental health (depression, anxiety, and PTSDb) Prevalence pre and post-release
Non-opioid substance use Prevalence pre and post-release
  Intermediate determinants associated with substance use disorders
Disrupted social networks Interventions to assist re-integration during the post release period
Poverty Post-release poverty and mental health and substance use
Polydrug use Prevalence and independent effect of CJa exposure on the risk of polysubstance use
Polypharmacy Relationship between pre and post-release prescribing of sedating medications
Effect of probation or parole Independent effect of probation and parole on post-release opioid related overdose mortality
Type of criminal charge or conviction Relation to stigma and post-release opioid-related overdose risk
Relationships between risk factors Investigation of the mediating or moderating relationships between risk factors
Investigation of novel interventions
Chronic pain Non-opioid pain management within jail or prison
Race Reduction of criminal justice exposure among blacks
Interruptions in care Improve engagement with healthcare services post-release
Solitary use Safe inject sites to reduces rates of solitary use post-release
Care coordination Integrate CJ, healthcare, and community organizations
Naltrexone Effectiveness of reducing opioid-related overdose mortality
New formulations of medications Efficacy and effectiveness of extended release buprenorphine
Police diversion programs and drug courts Process evaluation and effectiveness at reducing criminal justice exposure and opioid-related overdose
Implementation and dissemination
Interrupted opioid use disorder treatment and OATc access OAT programs pre and post-release
Interrupted naloxone access Naloxone program pre and post-release
  1. aCriminal justice
  2. bPost-traumatic stress disorder
  3. cOpioid agonist therapy