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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, and health care utilization characteristics of patients with alcohol use disorder in a large urban academic medical center (n = 21,159)

From: Primary care engagement is associated with increased pharmacotherapy prescribing for alcohol use disorder (AUD)

Characteristic All patients (n = 21,159) No primary carec (n = 12,086;57.1%) Limited primary cared (n = 3583; 16.9%) Engaged with primary caree (n = 5490; 26.0%) p value
Age, n (%)      < 0.001
 18–29 3242 (15.3) 2203 (18.2) 540 (15.1) 499 (9.1)  
 30–44 4962 (23.5) 3179 (26.3) 825 (23.0) 958 (17.5)  
 45–64 9614 (45.4) 5063 (41.9) 1661 (46.4) 2890 (52.6)  
 65 + 3341 (15.8) 1641 (13.6) 557 (15.6) 1143 (20.8)  
Female sex, n (%) 6104 (28.9) 3027 (25.1) 1083 (30.2) 1994 (36.3) < 0.001
Race/ethnicity, n (%)      < 0.001
 Hispanic 2028 (9.6) 647 (5.4) 444 (12.4) 937 (17.1)  
 Non-hispanic white 3402 (16.1) 2235 (18.5) 504 (14.1) 663 (12.1)  
 Non-hispanic black 7554 (35.7) 4060 (33.6) 1329 (37.1) 2165 (39.4)  
 Any othera or undetermined 8175 (38.6) 5144 (42.6) 1306 (36.5) 1725 (31.4)  
Insurance status      < 0.001
 Public 13,130 (62.1) 7598 (62.9) 2293 (64.0) 3239 (59.0)  
 Private 7452 (35.2) 4017 (33.2) 1248 (34.8) 2187 (39.8)  
 Self-pay or undetermined 577 (2.7) 471 (3.9) 42 (1.2) 64 (1.2)  
Charlson score, n (%)      < 0.001
 0 11,353 (53.7) 7340 (60.7) 1837 (51.3) 2176 (39.6)  
 1–2 5800 (27.4) 2976 (24.6) 960 (26.8) 1864 (34.0)  
 3+ 4006 (18.9) 1770 (14.7) 786 (21.9) 1450 (26.4)  
Year of cohort entry, n (%)      < 0.001
 2010 5148 (24.3) 2898 (24.0) 832 (23.2) 1418 (25.8)  
 2011 3942 (18.6) 2379 (19.7) 632 (17.6) 931 (17.0)  
 2012 3821 (18.1) 2183 (18.1) 636 (17.8) 1002 (18.3)  
 2013 4106 (19.4) 2297 (19.0) 684 (19.1) 1125 (20.5)  
 2014 4142 (19.6) 2329 (19.3) 799 (22.3) 1014 (18.5)  
Psychiatric comorbidityb, n (%) 5860 (27.7) 3209 (26.6) 987 (27.6) 1664 (30.3) < 0.001
Emergency visits, median (IQR) 1 (1, 3) 1 (1, 3) 2 (1, 4) 1 (0, 4) < 0.001
Inpatient admissions, median (IQR) 1 (0, 2) 1 (0, 1) 1 (0, 2) 1 (0, 2) < 0.001
Outpatient psychiatry visits, median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) < 0.001
Outpatient substance use treatment visits, median (IQR) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 0) < 0.713
  1. aIncludes Asian/Pacific Islander, Native American/Alaskan Native, and more than one race or missing race
  2. bIncludes depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia within 1 year prior to cohort entry
  3. cNo primary care visits within 2 years of cohort entry
  4. dAny number of primary care visits within 2 years of cohort entry that did not meet criteria for engaged with primary care
  5. eAt least two primary care facility visits, the first within 1 year of cohort entry and the second between 90 and 365 days after