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Table 2 Outcome measures

From: Study design to evaluate a group-based therapy for support persons of adults on buprenorphine/naloxone

Source Timepoint Outcome Description
Primary outcome measures
 EMR 6, 12 Buprenorphine retention Percentage of patients who initiated buprenorphine who have at least 6 and 12 months of continuous treatment with buprenorphine with no more than a 7-day lapse between prescriptions [51, 52]
Number of days of longest continuous buprenorphine treatment with no breaks in care
Source   Outcome Description
Secondary patient outcome measures
 P INT
SP INT
BL, 3, 12
BL, 3, 12
Patient opioid use Heroin, prescription opioid, and other opioid use in the past 30 days using questions from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health [57,58,59]
 EMR 6, 12 Medication adherence Percentage of patients with a buprenorphine prescription with a urine test positive for buprenorphine metabolites
 EMR 6, 12 OUD treatment retention Percentage of patients who initiated OBOT who had continued visits (no more than a 30-day lapse between visits) with any provider for a substance use disorder for 3, 6, and 12 months [8, 56]
 P INT
 SP INT
BL, 3, 12
BL, 3, 12
Patient other substance use Alcohol and other drug use in the past 30 days [58, 59]
 P INT BL, 3, 12 Overdose risk Opioid Overdose Risk Assessment scale [60]
 P INT BL, 3, 12 Patient Substance use problems Substance-related problems in the past 30 days using the Short Inventory of Problems
 P INT BL, 3, 12 Patient health Physical health in the past 30 days; depression and anxiety
 P INT BL, 3, 12 Quality of life Functional impairment in work/school, family, and social life using the 5-item Sheehan Disability Scale [61]
 P INT BL, 3, 12 Communication Adapted from the FACES IV [62]
 P INT BL, 3, 12 Employment status Full-time, part-time, unemployed, other (e.g., students, persons keeping house or caring for children full time, retired or disabled persons) [63]
 EMR
 P INT
6, 12
BL, 3, 12
Healthcare utilization Number of outpatient medical and behavioral health visits over the 12-month period
 P INT 3, 12 Treatment satisfaction Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) [64]
Secondary SP outcome measures
 SP INT BL, 3, 12 Health Physical health in the past 30 days; depression and anxiety
 SP INT BL, 3, 12 Substance use Alcohol and other drug use in the past 30 days [58, 59]
 SP INT BL, 3, 12 Quality of life Functional impairment in work/school, family, and social life using the 5-item Sheehan Disability Scale [61]
 SP INT BL, 3, 12 Communication Adapted from the FACES IV [62]
 SP INT 3 INSPIRE satisfaction Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) adapted to INSPIRE [64]
  1. BL: baseline; 3: 3-month follow-up; 6: 6-month; 12: 12-month follow-up; EMR: electronic medical record; P INT: patient interview; SP INT: support person interview; FACES IV: Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale IV; OBOT: office-based opioid treatment