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Table 5 Level of community participation across the development of each study

From: What can primary care services do to help First Nations people with unhealthy alcohol use? A systematic review: Australia, New Zealand, USA and Canada

Author (year) Four stages of project development
Diagnosis Development Implementation Evaluation
Treatment effectiveness
 Savard [75] (1968) 5–6 a
 Ferguson [73] (1970) 6 4–5 4–5
 O’Malley et al. [24] (2008) 5 4 4
 Venner et al. [69] (2016) 6 5 4 4
Implementation research
 Kahn and Fua [72] (1992) 3 3
 Clifford and Shakeshaft [59] (2011)
 Clifford et al. [61] (2013)
 D’Abbs et al. [62] (2013) 7 7 7 4
 Lovett et al. [67] (2014)
 Brett et al. [29] (2017) 6–7 6 7 6
Treatment access and/or acceptability
 Hall [74] (1986)
 Brady et al. [70] (1998) 1 1 1 1
 Huriwai et al. [76] (2000)
 Robertson et al. [77] (2001)
 Brady et al. [71] (2002) 3 3 3
 DeVerteuil and Wilson [63] (2010)
 Panaretto et al. [68] (2010)
 Allan [54] (2010) 3
 Gone [64] (2011) 4–5 5
 Allan and Campbell [55] (2011) 2
 Clifford et al. [60] (2012)
 Conigrave et al. [30] (2012) 6 6 6
 Legha and Novins [66] (2012) 2 2
 Calabria et al. [57] (2013)
 Lee et al. [65] (2013) 7 6 5 4
 Brett et al. [56] (2014)
 Calabria et al. [58] (2014)
 Hirchak et al. [31] (2018) 5 5 5 4
  1. aInsufficient data to apply assessment criteria