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Table 3 Withdrawal symptoms experienced by the participants during fasting time (n = 523)

From: Electronic cigarettes’ withdrawal severity symptoms among users during intermittent fasting: a cross-sectional study

Physical symptoms
(number of symptoms = 11)
n (%) Psychological symptoms (n (number of symptoms = 8) n (%)
No symptoms 235 (44.9) No Symptoms 246 (47.0)
Weight gain 17 (3.2) Social isolation 52 (9.9)
Sweating 22 (4.2) Depression 56 (10.7)
Abdominal cramping 27 (5.2) Feeling sleepy 60 (11.4)
Tremor 28 (5.4) Poor concentration 77 (14.7)
Breathing Difficulty 36 (6.8) Angry 94 (17.9)
Constipation 43 (8.2) Stress 96 (18.3)
Sore or itchy throat 51 (9.7) Restlessness 118 (22.5)
Heart palpitation 54 (10.3) Intense cravings for smoking 155 (29.6)
Dizziness 55 (10.5) -  
Headache 55 (10.5) -  
Nausea 57 (10.8) -  
Severity score Mean (± SD) 0.82 (± 1.78)   1.24 (± 1.89)