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Table 5 Summary of the regression models for the dependent variable; Physical symptoms and psychological symptoms severity scores associated with participant’s characteristics, and nicotine concentration predictors’ usage

From: Electronic cigarettes’ withdrawal severity symptoms among users during intermittent fasting: a cross-sectional study

Withdrawal symptoms score Physical withdrawal symptoms score Psychological symptoms score
Linear regression Multivariable regression Linear regression Multivariable regression
Beta p-value Beta p-value Beta p-value Beta p-value
Gender, ref: Male 0.088 0.043* 0.089 0.042* − 0.004 0.929 NA NA
Age, ref: 26–40 years         
 < 18 years 0.005 0.918 − 0.012 0.789 0.004 0.92 0.018 0.689
 18–25 years − 0.024 0.588 0.036 0.438 0.016 0.715 0.049 0.287
 > 40 years 0.111 0.110 0.120 0.090 0.098 0.25 0.112 0.140
Level of education, ref: Bachelor's degree holder
 Didn’t complete school education − 0.007 0.878 − 0.003 0.993 − 0.015 0.738 0.004 0.926
 Secondary school certificate 0.079 0.07 0.074 0.104 0.091 0.037* 0.107 0.19
 Diploma − 0.094 0.031* − 0.076 0.090 − 0.013 0.77 0.015 0.746
 Postgraduate degree 0.053 0.225 0.057 0.203 0.072 0.102 0.089 0.051
Occupation: ref: employee in a non-health sector
 Secondary school student − 0.017 0.691 − 0.026 0.579 0.027 0.538 0.032 0.495
 University student − 0.016 0.707 − 0.028 0.575 − 0.081 0.065 − 0.052 0.293
 An employee in a health sector − 0.029 0.508 − 0.037 0.434 0.026 0.547 0.031 0.502
 Others 0.015 0.725 − 0.006 0.903 0.060 0.171 0.054 0.288
Social status, ref: married − 0.159 0.309 − 0.079 0.356 − 0.370 0.032* − 0.088 0.356
Having children, ref: yes 0.059 0.176 0.088 0.294 0.094 0.032* 0.032 0.294
Mean concentration of nicotine in E-liquid (14.71 ± 4.24) mg/ml 0.021  < 0.001* 0.179  < 0.001* 0.136 0.002* 0.139 0.001*
  1. *significant value p < 0.05, NA not applicable