Skip to main content

Table 1 Details from included studies examining receipt of MOUD

From: The impact of methamphetamine/amphetamine use on receipt and outcomes of medications for opioid use disorder: a systematic review

Author/year Study design Time period Setting Population Total N Meth/amph measure MOUD measure Analysisa Covariatesb Associationc Direction (receipt)
Deck 2004 Cross-sectional 1992–2000 Oregon and Washington, US; publicly funded SUD tx programs Medicaid-eligible adults presenting for opioid use tx (first tx episode) Oregon: 7804; Washington: 9292 Amph use in past 30 days at intake (self-report) Placement in methadone tx vs. other modality (regular outpatient, residential, or residential detox) Logistic
regression
Demographics, social factors, other substance use, mental health, prior tx, referral source, distance from clinic Oregon: aOR  =  0.53,
p  <  0.01
Negative
Ns not presented for first episode only; 12% (Ore.), 11% (Wash.) of all tx episodes Washington: aOR  =  0.52,
p  <  0.01
Fairbairn 2012 Cross-sectional 2009 Bangkok, Thailand; community survey PWID with past 6-month injection drug use who use opioids 273 Meth use in past 6 months (self-report) Reporting methadone receipt at least once in past 6 months Logistic
regression
Demographics, other substance use aOR  =  0.49 (95% CI 0.29–0.85),
p  =  0.010
Negative
n  =  137
Gjersing 2013 Cross-sectional 2002–2011 Oslo, Norway; SSP SSP participants with past 4-week injection drug use who use heroin 1760 “Daily/almost daily” amph use in past 4 weeks (self-report) Reporting current receipt of methadone or bup Logistic
regression
None OR  =  0.7 (95% CI 0.6–1.0),
p  ≤  0.05
Negative
n  =  567
Jones 2020 Cross-sectional 2017 US; federally funded SUD tx (TEDS data) Admissions for patients age 12  +  with heroin as primary substance 533,394 Meth use listed as secondary or tertiary substance at admission Any MOUD (bup, methadone, and/or naltrex) is part of tx plan at admission Logistic
regression (amph is dependent variable)
Demographics, social factors, referral source, injection, age of first heroin use aOR  =  0.65 (95% CI 0.50–0.84) Negative
n  =  65,922
Michel 2017 Longitudinal 2014–2015 Haiphong, Vietnam; community survey Adult PWID who use heroin not currently receiving methadone 194 Meth use at baseline survey (UDS or self-report) NOT reporting having started methadone at week 52 f/u Logistic
regression
Frequency of drug injection aOR  =  3.34 (95% CI 1.92–5.79) Negative
n  =  76
Rhee 2019 Cross-sectional 2006–2015 US; outpatient physician visits (NAMCS data) Visits for adult patients with OUD (weighted) 2,055,381 Amph UD (dx codes, abuse/dependence) Bup rx at visit X2 test None 0.1% of bup vs. 1.4% of no bup visits had amph UD;
p  =  0.010
Negative
n  =  10,277
Shiner 2017 Longitudinal 2003–2013 US; national VA Adult VA patients with OUD and new PTSD treatment episode 19,998 Amph UD (dx codes, abuse/dependence) Any MOUD received in year after index visit (rx for bup/naltrex, clinic visit for methadone) Logistic
regression
Demographics, social factors, military experiences, physical/mental health, other SUDs, utilization aOR  =  0.77 (95% CI 0.68, 0.88) Negative
n  =  1524
Daniulaityte 2020 Cross-sectional 2017–2018 Dayton, Ohio, US; community survey Adults with OUD and past-6 month use of non-rx buprenorphine 356 Meth use in past 6 months (self-report) n  =  198 Reporting lifetime receipt of injectable naltrex, bup, or methadone (examined separately) Logistic
regression (meth is dependent variable)
Demographics, social factors, mental health, other substance use, receipt of other 2 MOUD types Naltrex aOR  =  2.89 (95% CI 1.45–5.75),
p  =  0.003
Positive (naltrex only)
Bup aOR  =  0.85 (95% CI 0.49–1.48),
p  =  0.57
Methadone aOR  =  0.63 (95% CI 0.37–1.11)
p  =  0.11
Morgan 2018 Longitudinal 2010–2014 US; national insurance claims data Commercially insured individuals with OUD 340,017 Amph UD during study period (dx codes, abuse/dependence) Filled rx for bup or naltrex (oral or injectable) during study period Logistic
regression
Demographics, health plan type, other SUDs aOR  =  1.183 (95% CI 1.127–1.241),
p  <  0.001
Positive
n  =  13,508
Hall 2016 Longitudinal 2007–2015 Kentucky, US; child welfare-based SUD program Adults using opioids in child abuse/neglect cases with ≥  1 child age  ≤  5 years old in their household 596 “Current” amph/meth use (self-report; examined separately) ≥  1 month of any MOUD (bup, methadone, or naltrex) while involved in program X2 test None 9.1% of  ≥  1 month MOUD vs. 8.3% of  <  1 month had amph use;
p  =  0.84
Non-significant
Amph n  =  50 9.1% of  ≥  1 month vs. 6.8% of  <  1 month had meth use;
p  =  0.53
Meth n  =  42
Pettes 2010 Longitudinal 2005–2008 Vancouver, Canada; community survey Adult HIV-positive PWID with heroin use 353 “Frequent” meth use in past 6 months (self-report; repeated measure) Reporting current enrollment in methadone tx (repeated measure) GEE model with logit link None OR  =  0.60 (95% CI 0.29–1.24),
p  =  0.166
Non-significant
n  =  12 at baseline
Manhapra 2020 Cross-sectional 2011–2012 US; national VA VA patients with OUD with no bup or methadone in first 60 days of FY 2012 94,145 Amph UD during FY 2012 (dx codes, abuse/dependence) Receipt of bup (filled rx) or methadone (clinic visit) during FY 2012 (examined separately) Calculated RRs (ref group: no bup or methadone) None Bup RR  =  1.23
Methadone RR  =  1.09
No statistical test reported
n  =  4887
Thirion 2001 Cross-sectional 1995–1997 France; national survey of SUD tx centers Patients with opioid use in SUD tx centers 1506 Amph use in past week (self-report) Reporting receipt of bup or methadone compared to reporting heroin use with no bup or methadone Compared % with amph use across groups None 1% in bup group, 1% in methadone group, 6% in heroin use with no bup ormethadone group had amph use No statistical test reported
n  =  47
  1. amph amphetamine; aOR adjusted odds ratio; bup buprenorphine; CI confidence interval; dx diagnostic; f/u follow-up; FY fiscal year; GEE generalized estimating equation; naltrex naltrexone; NAMCS National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey; meth methamphetamine; MOUD medications for opioid use disorder; OR odds ratio; OUD opioid use disorder; PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder; PWID people who inject drugs; ref reference; RR risk ratio; rx prescription; SSP syringes services program; SUD substance use disorder; TEDS Treatment Episode Data Set; tx treatment; UD use disorder; UDS urine drug screen; US United States; VA Veterans Health Administration
  2. aMeth/amph use/use disorder measure is independent variable and MOUD measure is dependent variable unless otherwise noted
  3. bA detailed description of covariates is provided in Appendix 2: Table 5
  4. cCrude measures of association are only presented alongside adjusted measures if there was a difference in statistical significance; p-values and/or 95% CIs are presented when they were reported