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Table 1 Details from included studies examining receipt of MOUD

From: The impact of methamphetamine/amphetamine use on receipt and outcomes of medications for opioid use disorder: a systematic review

Author/year Study design Time period Setting Population Total N Meth/amph measure MOUD measure Analysisa Covariatesb Associationc Direction (receipt)
Deck 2004 Cross-sectional 1992–2000 Oregon and Washington, US; publicly funded SUD tx programs Medicaid-eligible adults presenting for opioid use tx (first tx episode) Oregon: 7804; Washington: 9292 Amph use in past 30 days at intake (self-report) Placement in methadone tx vs. other modality (regular outpatient, residential, or residential detox) Logistic
Demographics, social factors, other substance use, mental health, prior tx, referral source, distance from clinic Oregon: aOR  =  0.53,
p  <  0.01
Ns not presented for first episode only; 12% (Ore.), 11% (Wash.) of all tx episodes Washington: aOR  =  0.52,
p  <  0.01
Fairbairn 2012 Cross-sectional 2009 Bangkok, Thailand; community survey PWID with past 6-month injection drug use who use opioids 273 Meth use in past 6 months (self-report) Reporting methadone receipt at least once in past 6 months Logistic
Demographics, other substance use aOR  =  0.49 (95% CI 0.29–0.85),
p  =  0.010
n  =  137
Gjersing 2013 Cross-sectional 2002–2011 Oslo, Norway; SSP SSP participants with past 4-week injection drug use who use heroin 1760 “Daily/almost daily” amph use in past 4 weeks (self-report) Reporting current receipt of methadone or bup Logistic
None OR  =  0.7 (95% CI 0.6–1.0),
p  ≤  0.05
n  =  567
Jones 2020 Cross-sectional 2017 US; federally funded SUD tx (TEDS data) Admissions for patients age 12  +  with heroin as primary substance 533,394 Meth use listed as secondary or tertiary substance at admission Any MOUD (bup, methadone, and/or naltrex) is part of tx plan at admission Logistic
regression (amph is dependent variable)
Demographics, social factors, referral source, injection, age of first heroin use aOR  =  0.65 (95% CI 0.50–0.84) Negative
n  =  65,922
Michel 2017 Longitudinal 2014–2015 Haiphong, Vietnam; community survey Adult PWID who use heroin not currently receiving methadone 194 Meth use at baseline survey (UDS or self-report) NOT reporting having started methadone at week 52 f/u Logistic
Frequency of drug injection aOR  =  3.34 (95% CI 1.92–5.79) Negative
n  =  76
Rhee 2019 Cross-sectional 2006–2015 US; outpatient physician visits (NAMCS data) Visits for adult patients with OUD (weighted) 2,055,381 Amph UD (dx codes, abuse/dependence) Bup rx at visit X2 test None 0.1% of bup vs. 1.4% of no bup visits had amph UD;
p  =  0.010
n  =  10,277
Shiner 2017 Longitudinal 2003–2013 US; national VA Adult VA patients with OUD and new PTSD treatment episode 19,998 Amph UD (dx codes, abuse/dependence) Any MOUD received in year after index visit (rx for bup/naltrex, clinic visit for methadone) Logistic
Demographics, social factors, military experiences, physical/mental health, other SUDs, utilization aOR  =  0.77 (95% CI 0.68, 0.88) Negative
n  =  1524
Daniulaityte 2020 Cross-sectional 2017–2018 Dayton, Ohio, US; community survey Adults with OUD and past-6 month use of non-rx buprenorphine 356 Meth use in past 6 months (self-report) n  =  198 Reporting lifetime receipt of injectable naltrex, bup, or methadone (examined separately) Logistic
regression (meth is dependent variable)
Demographics, social factors, mental health, other substance use, receipt of other 2 MOUD types Naltrex aOR  =  2.89 (95% CI 1.45–5.75),
p  =  0.003
Positive (naltrex only)
Bup aOR  =  0.85 (95% CI 0.49–1.48),
p  =  0.57
Methadone aOR  =  0.63 (95% CI 0.37–1.11)
p  =  0.11
Morgan 2018 Longitudinal 2010–2014 US; national insurance claims data Commercially insured individuals with OUD 340,017 Amph UD during study period (dx codes, abuse/dependence) Filled rx for bup or naltrex (oral or injectable) during study period Logistic
Demographics, health plan type, other SUDs aOR  =  1.183 (95% CI 1.127–1.241),
p  <  0.001
n  =  13,508
Hall 2016 Longitudinal 2007–2015 Kentucky, US; child welfare-based SUD program Adults using opioids in child abuse/neglect cases with ≥  1 child age  ≤  5 years old in their household 596 “Current” amph/meth use (self-report; examined separately) ≥  1 month of any MOUD (bup, methadone, or naltrex) while involved in program X2 test None 9.1% of  ≥  1 month MOUD vs. 8.3% of  <  1 month had amph use;
p  =  0.84
Amph n  =  50 9.1% of  ≥  1 month vs. 6.8% of  <  1 month had meth use;
p  =  0.53
Meth n  =  42
Pettes 2010 Longitudinal 2005–2008 Vancouver, Canada; community survey Adult HIV-positive PWID with heroin use 353 “Frequent” meth use in past 6 months (self-report; repeated measure) Reporting current enrollment in methadone tx (repeated measure) GEE model with logit link None OR  =  0.60 (95% CI 0.29–1.24),
p  =  0.166
n  =  12 at baseline
Manhapra 2020 Cross-sectional 2011–2012 US; national VA VA patients with OUD with no bup or methadone in first 60 days of FY 2012 94,145 Amph UD during FY 2012 (dx codes, abuse/dependence) Receipt of bup (filled rx) or methadone (clinic visit) during FY 2012 (examined separately) Calculated RRs (ref group: no bup or methadone) None Bup RR  =  1.23
Methadone RR  =  1.09
No statistical test reported
n  =  4887
Thirion 2001 Cross-sectional 1995–1997 France; national survey of SUD tx centers Patients with opioid use in SUD tx centers 1506 Amph use in past week (self-report) Reporting receipt of bup or methadone compared to reporting heroin use with no bup or methadone Compared % with amph use across groups None 1% in bup group, 1% in methadone group, 6% in heroin use with no bup ormethadone group had amph use No statistical test reported
n  =  47
  1. amph amphetamine; aOR adjusted odds ratio; bup buprenorphine; CI confidence interval; dx diagnostic; f/u follow-up; FY fiscal year; GEE generalized estimating equation; naltrex naltrexone; NAMCS National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey; meth methamphetamine; MOUD medications for opioid use disorder; OR odds ratio; OUD opioid use disorder; PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder; PWID people who inject drugs; ref reference; RR risk ratio; rx prescription; SSP syringes services program; SUD substance use disorder; TEDS Treatment Episode Data Set; tx treatment; UD use disorder; UDS urine drug screen; US United States; VA Veterans Health Administration
  2. aMeth/amph use/use disorder measure is independent variable and MOUD measure is dependent variable unless otherwise noted
  3. bA detailed description of covariates is provided in Appendix 2: Table 5
  4. cCrude measures of association are only presented alongside adjusted measures if there was a difference in statistical significance; p-values and/or 95% CIs are presented when they were reported