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Table 3 Details from included studies examining opioid abstinence during MOUD

From: The impact of methamphetamine/amphetamine use on receipt and outcomes of medications for opioid use disorder: a systematic review

Author/year Study design Time period Setting Population Adjunctive servicesa Total N Meth/amph measure MOUD measure Analysis Covariatesb Associationc Direction (abstinence)
Liu 2018 Cross-sectional Not reported Taiwan; methadone tx programs in hospitals (various locations) Adult patients receiving methadone for  ≥  3 months 344 Amph use (UDS) Opioid use (UDS) X2 test None 20% in opioid group had amph use vs. 9% in no opioid group;
p  =  0.005
n  =  51
Hoang 2018 Longitudinal 2008–2013 Vietnam; methadone tx programs (national random sample) Adult patients initiating methadone 500 Meth use prior to initiation (self-report) Heroin use over 24-month f/u period (self-report and/or UDS) Logistic regression Family support, years used heroin, HIV status, antiretroviral therapy receipt aOR: 2.68 (95% CI 1.08–6.65),
p  =  0.034
n  =  12
Kunøe 2010 Longitudinal (RCT data) 2005–2007 Norway; inpatient SUD tx programs and prisons (various locations) Adults with OUD receiving sustained-release naltrex implants in RCT 60 Frequency of amph use during 6-month study period and final month (self-report; none, 1–3 times/month, 1–3 times/week, daily/almost daily) Opioid use during tx (self-report) Rank-test procedure (Spearman’s R) Demographics Opioid use group had more frequent amph use in 6-month period
(R  =  0.29; p  =  0.028)
and the final study month
(R  =  0.35; p  =  0.008)
(n not reported)
Proctor 2016 Longitudinal 2009–2011 US; inpatient SUD tx programs operated by large healthcare provider (various locations) Adult patients receiving methadone with stay of  ≥  15 days 2410 Amph use at initiation, 3, 6, and 9 months (UDS) Opioid use at 3, 6, 9, and 12-months (UDS) Logistic regression Demographics, dose 6-month amph use/9-month opioid use: aOR  =  5.77 (95% CI 1.26–26.40),
p  =  0.024; p  >  0.05 for all other time point combinations
n  =  219 at initiation (not reported for f/u timepoints)
Potter 2013 Longitudinal (RCT data) 2006–2009 US; federally-licensed OUD tx programs (various locations) Adults with OUD initiating bup or methadone in RCT 705 Amph UD assessed at initiation (dx criteria) Opioid abstinence (no use in 30 days before end of tx; self-report) X2 test None 6.6% in opioid group had amph use vs. 8.0% in no opioid group;
p  >  0.05
n  =  52
Senbanjo 2009 Cross-sectional 2003–2003 East Kent, England; methadone tx programs Adults receiving methadone for  ≥  1 month 191 Amph use in past 14 days (self-report) Heroin use in past 14 days (self-report) X2 test; calculated unadjusted OR None X2
p  =  0.399; OR  =  2.07 (95% CI 0.37–11.6)
n = 6
Smyth 2018 Longitudinal 2000–2016 Dublin, Ireland; youth OUD tx program Adolescent patients (<  18.5 years) initiating methadone or bup Tx involved counseling, family therapy (in some cases) 39 Amph use in past month at initiation (self-report) Heroin abstinence during 12th month of tx (UDS) Fisher’s exact test; calculated unadjusted OR None Fisher’s exact
p  =  0.60; OR  =  0.3 (95% CI 0.03–3.1)
n  =  4
Abraham-sson 2016 Longitudinal 2011 Lund, Sweden; outpatient “interim” bup tx program Adult patients with OUD initiating bup (on wait list for “full-scale” tx) 44 Days of amph use in past 30 days at initiation (self-report) Opioid abstinence during entire study period (UDS) Independent samples t test None Mean 0.6 days in opioid group; 1.2 days in no opioid group; t test p  >  0.1 Non-significant
n  =  13 reported any amph use
  1. amph amphetamine; aOR adjusted odds ratio; bup buprenorphine; CI confidence interval; dx diagnostic; f/u follow-up; meth methamphetamine; OUD opioid use disorder; RCT randomized controlled trial; SUD substance use disorder; tx treatment; UDS urine drug screen; US United States
  2. aIncluded if paper clearly described that study participants received or were offered services
  3. bA detailed description of covariates is provided in Appendix 2: Table 5
  4. cCrude measures of association are only presented alongside adjusted measures if there was a difference in statistical significance; p values and/or 95% CIs are presented when they were reported