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Table 5 Detailed description of covariates in included studies

From: The impact of methamphetamine/amphetamine use on receipt and outcomes of medications for opioid use disorder: a systematic review

Author/pub year Covariates included in analysis
Abrahamsson 2016 None
Banta-Green 2009 Age, gender, race/ethnicity, medical concerns, public assistance, home conducive to recovery, children under 12 at home, legal system involvement, prescription opiate use only vs. heroin use, cocaine use, treatment agency
Daniulaityte 2020 Age, gender, race, homelessness, psychiatric comorbidity, ever prescribed pharmaceutical stimulants, ever used diverted pharmaceutical stimulants, prefer fentanyl vs. heroin, injection as primary method of heroin/fentanyl administration, days of use in past 6 months of heroin/fentanyl, non-prescribed pain pills, non-prescribed buprenorphine, marijuana, cocaine, and non-prescribed benzodiazepine, lifetime receipt of other 2 types of MOUD
Deck 2004 Age, gender, race/ethnicity, Medicaid program, years of opiate use, needle use, frequency of opiate use, cocaine use, alcohol use, mental health needs (Washington only), arrested, prior methadone, prior SUD treatment, distance from clinic, referral source (self/treatment agency/legal), not employable, no source of income, marital status, housing (live in own home/live in group home/homeless/other), pregnant, months Medicaid eligible; enrolled in ADATSA (alcohol and drug abuse prevention and treatment; Washington only)
Deck 2005 Age, gender, race/ethnicity, Medicaid program, years of opiate use, needle use, frequency of opiate use, cocaine use, alcohol use, mental health needs (Washington only), arrested, prior methadone, prior SUD treatment, distance from clinic, referral source (self/treatment agency/legal), not employable, no source of income, marital status, housing (personal home/homeless/other), pregnant, state Medicaid eligibility, enrolled in ADATSA (alcohol and drug abuse prevention and treatment; Washington only), admission cohort, treatment agency
Fairbairn 2012 Age, gender, Midazolam injection, heroin injection, alcohol consumption
Gjersing 2013 None
Hall 2016 None
Hoang 2018 Time of assessment, family support, number of years used heroin prior to initiation, HIV status, antiretroviral therapy receipt
Hser 2014 Age, gender, race/ethnicity, short form 36-item health survey scores (physical component summary and mental component summary), alcohol use, number of cigarettes smoked/day, opioid-positive UDS, cannabis-positive UDS, cocaine-positive UDS, days of heroin/opiate use in past 30 days, site (west vs. east coast), dose on last day of treatment, methadone vs. buprenorphine (in total sample), interaction of buprenorphine/methadone with dose (in total sample)
Hui 2017 None
Jones 2020 Age, gender, race/ethnicity, US census region, employment status, living arrangement, treatment referral source, heroin injection, age of first heroin use
Kumar 2016 Age, gender, marital status, route of opioid use, pain, current substance use other than benzodiazepines and opioids, benzodiazepine use, cocaine use, opioid use, cannabis use, physical or emotional neglect (2 models)
Kunøe 2010 Age, gender
Liu 2017 Marital status, number of times in “compulsory drug detoxification”
Liu 2018 None
Lo 2018 Age, homelessness, incarceration, no income assistance, binge alcohol use, daily opioid use, daily heroin injection, daily cocaine injection, binge on drug injection, HIV, proportion of visits on methadone, methadone dose
Logan 2019 None
Manhapra 2017 None
Manhapra 2018 None
Manhapra 2020 None
Michel 2017 Frequency of injection (<  75 vs.  >  75 injections/month)
Morgan 2018 MOUD receipt (logistic regression model):  Age, gender, geographic region, health plan type, alcohol use disorder, cannabis use disorder, cocaine use disorder, hallucinogen use disorder, sedative use disorder
MOUD retention (Cox proportional hazards model): Age, gender, region of residence, alcohol use disorder, cannabis use disorder, cocaine use disorder, hallucinogen use disorder, sedative use disorder, ever seen in detox facility, type of provider at initiation, place of initiation, commercial insurance type, type of MOUD, effect of medication type in first 30 days of treatment
Peles 2008 Tel Aviv sample : None
Las Vegas sample:  Age, have children, duration opioid use before admission, Hepatitis C
Peles 2015 None
Pettes 2010 None
Potter 2013 None
Proctor 2015 12-month model: Age, gender, method of payment, average daily methadone dose
6-month model :  Race/ethnicity, marital status, employment status, average daily methadone dose
Proctor 2016 3-month model: Age, gender, employment status, race/ethnicity, marital status, and average daily methadone dose
6-month model: Race/ethnicity, marital status, and average daily methadone dose
9-month model:  Age, gender, employment status, race/ethnicity, marital status, and average daily methadone dose
12-month model:   Age, race/ethnicity, employment status, and average daily methadone dose
Rhee 2019 None
Schiff 2007 Age, gender, age × gender interaction, heroin use, cocaine use, benzodiazepine use, cannabis use
Schuman-Olivier 2014 None
Senbanjo 2009 None
Shiner 2017 Age, gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, rural vs. urban, VA disability level, homelessness, OEF/OIF/OND veteran, combat exposure, sexual trauma while in military, Charlson comorbidity index, plurality of care at VA medical center, plurality of care at a CBOC,  ≥  1 visit with a primary care prescriber,  ≥  1 visit with a mental health prescriber,  ≥  1 visit with a SUD prescriber, residential SUD treatment, inpatient admission for detoxification, effective antidepressant for PTSD, pain disorder, headache disorder, psychotic disorders, bipolar mood disorders, depressive mood disorders, non-PTSD anxiety disorders, TBI and cognitive disorders, personality disorders, nicotine use disorder, alcohol use disorder, marijuana use disorder, cocaine use disorder, amphetamine use disorder, tranquilizer and sedative use disorder, hallucinogen use disorder, fiscal year
Skeie 2013 None
Smyth 2018 None
Thirion 2001 None
Tsui 2020 Age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level, clinic site, time period of enrollment
White 2014 None