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Table 4 Mean comparisons based on lifetime cannabis use disorder, cocaine use disorder, and major depressive disorder with neurocognitive (NC) functioning (N = 97)

From: Neurocognitive, psychiatric, and substance use characteristics in a diverse sample of persons with OUD who are starting methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone in opioid treatment programs

Neurocognitive domain Diagnosis of cannabis use disorder Diagnosis of cocaine use disorder Diagnosis of major depressive disorder
  Yes (n = 42) No (n = 54)    Yes (n = 57) No (n = 39)    Yes (n = 35) No (n = 61)   
  M (SD) M (SD) t-test Cohen’s d M (SD) M (SD) t-test Cohen’s d M (SD) M (SD) t-test Cohen’s d
Global NC functioning 42.7 (5.7) 40.7 (6.9) − 1.5 0.31 42.1 (6.7) 40.8 (6.1) − 1.0 0.20 39.9 (7.0) 42.5 (6.0) 1.9* 0.41
Executive functioning 45.6 (7.3) 42.1 (7.9) − 2.3** 0.46 44.9 (8.1) 41.7 (6.9) − 2.0* 0.42 41.6 (8.0) 44.7 (7.5) 1.9* 0.40
Learning 35.3 (9.1) 33.6 (7.3) − 1.0 0.21 33.6 (7.8) 35.4 (9.0) 1.0 0.22 33.2 (7.7) 35.0 (8.6) 1.0 0.22
Memory 36.4 (8.1) 34.7 (9.3) − 0.9 0.19 35.1 (8.5) 36.1 (9.3) 0.5 0.11 34.7 (8.7) 35.9 (8.9) 0.6 0.14
Attention/working memory 46.0 (9.9) 40.8 (8.6) − 2.8*** 0.57 45.3 (9.6) 39.8 (8.5) − 2.9*** 0.60 39.7 (9.2) 45.0 (9.2) 2.7*** 0.58
Speed of information processing 47.9 (7.4) 48.2 (10.0) 0.1 0.03 48.7 (9.3) 47.1 (8.3) − 0.9 0.18 46.0 (9.6) 49.2 (8.3) 1.7* 0.36
Motor skills 42.1 (9.5) 41.9 (11.0) − 0.1 0.02 41.2 (10.5) 43.2 (10.1) 0.9 0.19 38.4 (9.4) 44.1 (10.3) 2.6** 0.57
Verbal fluency 45.7 (9.1) 43.8 (10.5) − 1.5 0.19 46.0 (10.7) 42.6 (8.3) − 1.7* 0.35 46.0 (10.9) 43.9 (9.3) − 1.0 0.21
  1. Mean and Standard Deviations (M, SD) based on average T scores; Diagnosis assessed using the Composite Diagnostic Interview (CIDI); T-scores between 45 and 54 = average; T-scores between 40 and 44 = below average; T-scores < 40 = overall impaired; T = 35–39 mildly impaired; T = 30–34 mild-moderately impaired; T = 25–29 moderately impaired; T = 20–24 moderate-severely impaired; and T < 20 severely impaired
  2. *p < 0.10
  3. **p < 0.05
  4. ***p < 0.01