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Table 2 OUD treatment and harm reduction service adaptations in response to COVID-19; Peer-reviewed literature, 2020

From: Early innovations in opioid use disorder treatment and harm reduction during the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review

Author, month, location Name of clinic/organization Care setting Primary OUD services discussed Innovative strategies to adapt to COVID-19
Samuel et al., May, 2020
Rhode Island, United States
Brown University and Rhode Island Department of Health Substance Use Treatment Buprenorphine 24-h telehealth-based bridge program for buprenorphine initiation and referral to ongoing care
Peavy et al., September, 2020
Washington, USA
Evergreen Treatment Services Substance Use Treatment Methadone Increased take-homes for methadone provided along with smartphone application to allow video-directly observed therapy
Hazan et al., September, 2020
London, United Kingdom
Department of Addiction Psychiatry, Barnet & Haringey Mental Health Trust and Camden & Islington Foundation Trust Substance Use Treatment Buprenorphine, Methadone Extended take-home supplies and lengths of prescriptions; removed supervised consumption and suspended psychosocial services; offered delivery of medications to isolated patients
Straub et al., September, 2020
Victoria, Australia
Long-Acting Injectable Buprenorphine (LAIB) Program St. Vincents Hospital Melbourne Substance Use Treatment Buprenorphine Establishment of rapid access clinic to administer long-acting injectable buprenorphine to reduce travel and crowding
Ghosh, October, 2020
National Healthcare System Opioid Agonist Treatment (OAT) Services Substance Use Treatment Buprenorphine Increased number of take-home buprenorphine doses; Increased days and hours of operation; dispensed buprenorphine to family member
Trujols et al., October, 2020
Catelonia, Spain
Methadone Center at Santa Creu i Sant Pau Hospital Substance Use Treatment Methadone Increased number of take-home doses per patient
Basu et al., May, 2020
Chandigarh, India
Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) Substance Use Treatment Buprenorphine, Methadone Suspended group counseling and urine drug screening; switched psychosocial services to virtual platforms; Increased number of take-home buprenorphine doses prescribed to patients; suspended initiations of new patients;
Vecchio et al., July, 2020
Piedmont, Italy
SUD Specialist Treatment Centre in Biella Substance Use Treatment Buprenorphine, Methadone Suspended or switched psychosocial services to virtual platform; conducted patient assessments and triage via phone/video calls;
Increased take home doses of medications for OUD
Quinones et al., November, 2020
Puerto Rico
Corporacion SANOS Clinic, Coalicio´n de Coaliciones Clinic, Clinica Pitirre Iniciativa Comunitaria Clinic Substance Use Treatment Buprenorphine, Methadone Provided psychosocial services via telemedicine; home delivery for medications for OUD; Increased number of days that OUD care was provided to reduce crowding; allowed for telemedicine appointments through patients and providers sitting in separate rooms
Komaromy et al., December, 2020
Massachusetts, USA
The Grayken Center for Addiction at Boston Medical Center-affiliated SUD programs Substance Use Treatment Buprenorphine, naloxone, sterile syringe equipment Offered buprenorphine visits via telehealth; offered harm-reduction interventions for overdose prevention and sterile injection equipment
Distributed donated phones to patients who lacked access for telehealth; Extended length of buprenorphine prescriptions; Increased use of extended-release injectable buprenorphine; Created 24-h call-line for addiction treatment; Text messaging or ‘‘on the fly’’ telehealth visits to stay connected with young patients; Addiction consult services switched to telehealth consultations
Hughto et al., October, 2020
Rhode Island, USA
VICTA—Privately owned outpatient substance abuse and mental health treatment program Substance Use Treatment Counseling for MOUD patients Switched counseling of OUD patients to virtual platforms; provided
clinicians with laptops to engage in telehealth
McKiever et al., August, 2020
Ohio, USA
Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Ohio State University College of Medicine Substance Use Treatment Psychosocial services for pregnant women receiving OUD treatment Switched to telehealth for individual and group therapy
Singh and Tikka, October, 2020
Chhattisgarh, India
The Opioid Substitution Clinic at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Raipur Substance Use Treatment Buprenorphine Suspended intakes and managed new patients via telehealth; Suspended random urine screening; implemented COVID-19 safety precautions in clinic
Crowley et al., April, 2020
The Irish College of General Practitioners and the National Health Service Executive office for Social Inclusion Primary Care/General Practitioner Buprenorphine, Methadone Telephone-based assessment and triage to general practitioner who conducts remote medical management of MOUD following a single in-person visit
Tringale et al., October, 2020
California, United States
Homeless Health Care Los Angeles Outreach/Harm Reduction Program Buprenorphine Telehealth-based buprenorphine treatment through access to sanitized glass telephone booths
Harris et al., May, 2020
Massachusetts, USA
Boston Medical Center-affiliated community drop-in center Outreach/Harm Reduction Program Buprenorphine Telehealth-based buprenorphine initiation through smartphone provided by harm reduction specialist at drop-in clinic
Marcus et al., August, 2020
Tshwane, South Africa
University of Pretoria’s Department of Family Medicine Outreach/Harm Reduction Program Methadone Provided methadone doses in temporary pandemic homeless shelter; Moving stable patients from daily observed treatment to weekly take home dosing
MacKinnon et al., October, 2020
British Columbia, Canada
Medical services within supportive housing units in Vancouver, affiliated with University of British Columbia Outreach/Harm Reduction Program Safe supply of opioids, Supervised injection, Methadone, Buprenorphine Provided pharmaceutical grade alternative to toxic illicit drug supply termed ‘pandemic withdrawal management’; modified supervised injection spaces; Longer MOUD prescriptions; Increasing the number of take-home MOUD doses; switched to virtual platforms for clinical encounters
Castillo et al., November, 2020
Florida, USA
TeleMOUD, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Outreach/Harm Reduction Program Buprenorphine Telehealth-based buprenorphine treatment initiation advertised via a syringe exchange program and online platform
Courser et al., December, 2020
Ohio, USA
Community Based Take Home Naloxone Programs Outreach/Harm Reduction Program Naloxone Provided individual and group naloxone trainings via telephone and video conferences; promoted naloxone via social media, offered drive through events for naloxone education and distribution, sent mail-order naloxone kits
Nordeck et al., November, 2020
Maryland, USA
Behavioral Health Leadership Institute Outreach/Harm Reduction Program Buprenorphine, Naloxone Telehealth for buprenorphine initiation and maintenance, daily distribution of naloxone kits via a drop-off basket
Wenzel and Fishman, September, 2020
Maryland, USA
Youth Opioid Recovery Support (YORS) NIH HEAL Initiative Mobile Clinic Buprenorphine, Naltrexone Delivered extended-release buprenorphine and extended-release naltrexone via a mobile van that traveled to patient homes
Warrington et al., September, 2020
Vermont, USA
Commercial Laboratory, Aspenti Health Mobile Clinic Urine drug testing for OUD patients Deployed mobile unit to patient homes to conduct urine drug testing on the mobile van
Duncan et al., October, 2020
Minnesota, United States
Hennepin County Jail Correctional Facility Buprenorphine Telehealth-based buprenorphine encounters using a computer in jail medical unit
Roberts et al., September, 2020
New South Whales, Australia
New South Whales Correctional Centers Correctional Facility Buprenorphine Began offering injectable long-acting buprenorphine to people in detention to reduce movement
  1. OUD Opioid use disorder; MOUD: Medications for opioid use disorder; OAT Opioid agonist therapies, LAIB Long acting injectable buprenorphine