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Table 3 Ten steps of universal precautions

From: Management of chronic pain with chronic opioid therapy in patients with substance use disorders

1. Make a diagnosis with appropriate differential.
2. Perform a psychological assessment, including risk of addictive disorders.
3. Obtain informed consent.
4. Use a treatment agreement.
5. Conduct assessment of pain level and function before and after the intervention.
6. Begin an appropriate trial of opioid therapy with or without adjunctive medications and therapies.
7. Reassess pain score and level of function.
8. Regularly assess the 4 “As” of pain medication: Analgesia, Activity, Adverse effects, and Aberrant behavior.
9. Periodically review pain diagnosis and co-occurring conditions, including addictive disorders.
10. Document initial evaluation and follow visits.
  1. Adopted from Gourlay DL et al [41].