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Table 1 Comparison of patient characteristics: treatment as usual (not-horse assisted therapy) with intervention group (treatment as usual plus horse assisted therapy)

From: Substance use disorder treatment retention and completion: a prospective study of horse-assisted therapy (HAT) for young adults

Variable Item Not-HATa HATa Total % Chi square
N = 43 N = 65 N = 108 100
Discharge status Dropped out 37 (86.0) 28 (43.1) 65 60.2 19.94, p < 0.001
Completed 6 (14.0) 37 (56.9) 43 39.8
Days in treatment
 Mean <113 days 32 (74.4) 28 (43.1) 57 55.6 10.30, p = 0.001
113+ days 11 (25.6) 37 (56.9) 51 44.4
 Critical period <90 days 28 (65.1) 21 (32.3) 49 45.4 11.24, p = 0.001
90+ days 15 (34.9) 44 (67.7) 59 54.6
Gender Female 8 (18.6) 22 (33.8) 30 27.8 2.10, p = 0.083
Male 35 (81.4) 43 (66.2) 78 72.2
Age <20 years 9 (20.9) 5 (7.7) 14 13 6.80, p = 0.034
20–26 years 30 (69.8) 44 (67.7) 74 68.5
27+ years 4 (9.3) 16 (24.6) 20 18.5
Years of schooling <10 years 7 (16.3) 11 (16.9) 18 16.7 2.42, p = 0.298
10–12 years 31 (72.1) 39 (60.0) 70 64.8
13+ years 5 (11.6) 15 (23.1) 20 18.5
Primary substance Cannabis 20 (46.5) 22 (33.8) 42 38.9 6.31, p = 0.389
Alchol 6 (14.0) 14 (21.5) 20 18.5
Heroin 6 (14.0) 11 (16.9) 17 15.7
Amphetamine 4 (9.3) 11 (16.9) 15 13.9
Benzodiazepine 3 (7.0) 5 (7.7) 8 7.4
GHBb 2 (4.7) 2 (3.1) 4 3.7
Cocaine 2 (4.7) 0 (0.0) 2 1.9
No. of substances 1 substances 12 (27.9) 23 (35.4) 35 32.4 0.82, p = 0.662
2 substances 14 (32.6) 17 (26.2) 31 28.7
3 substances 17 (39.5) 25 (38.5) 42 38.9
Age of first use <16 years 25 (58.1) 32 (49.2) 57 52.8 0.82, p = 0.364
16+ years 18 (41.9) 33 (50.8) 51 47.2
HSCL-25c <1.75 9 (20.9) 10 (15.4) 19 17.6 0.55, p = 0.459
1.75+ 34 (79.1) 55 (84.6) 89 82.4
Subsitution medicined No 38 (88.4) 54 (83.1) 92 85.2 0.58, p = 0.450
Yes 5 (11.6) 11 (16.9) 16 14.8
Psych. co-morbidity (at entry) None diagnosed 21 (48.8) 37 (56.9) 58 53.7 1.10, p = 0.580
1 diagnosed 16 (37.2) 18 (27.7) 34 31.5
2+ diagnosed 6 (14.0) 10 (15.4) 16 14.8
Temporary exit No exit 32 (74.4) 33 (50.8) 65 60.2 6.10, p = 0.05
1 re-entry 6 (14.0) 18 (27.7) 24 22.3
2+ re-entries 5 (11.6) 14 (21.5) 19 17.6
  1. aNot horse assisted therapy/horse assisted therapy
  2. bGamma hydroxybutyrate (C4H8O3)
  3. cHopkins Symptom Checklist-25
  4. dOpioid pharmacotherapy