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Table 4 Validation studies in Indigenous communities of tools used to detect or assess dependence (n = 2)

From: What is the prevalence of current alcohol dependence and how is it measured for Indigenous people in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States of America? A systematic review

Authors (year) Recruitment strategy Indigenous sample recruited Interview/tool administration Tool/s Validated (y/n) Validated in Indigenous communities (y/n) Comment on validation
Male n (%) Female n (%) Age range
Robin et al. (2004) [26] Other (selected from 3 multigenerational pedigrees) A1. 205 (45%)
B2. 101 (47%)
A1. 251 (55%)
B2. 113 (53%)
21–50+ Interviewer-administered (clinical social worker and psychologist) SADS-L; interviewer-administered1 SMAST and self-administered2 SADS-L
(DSM-III-R)
SMAST
(DSM-III-R)
Yes SMAST (Native American population) Authors suggest a cut-off of ≥ 5 for Southwestern men and women; ≥ 8 for Plains men and ≥ 6 for Plains women
Saremi et al. (2001) [27] Other (selected from 3 multigenerational pedigrees) A3. 157 (51%)
B4. 96 (35%)
C5. 1113 (39%)
A3. 150 (49%)
B4. 179 (65%)
C5. 1741 (61%)
21+ Interviewer-administered SADS-L (psychologist) and CAGE/CAGE-T SADS-L and CAGE/CAGE-T (DSM-III-R) Yes CAGE (Native American population) Authors suggest a cut-off score of ≥ 2
  1. 1Southwestern participants (Robin et al.)
  2. 2Plains participants (Robin et al.)
  3. 3Psychiatric interview only (Saremi et al.)
  4. 4Both CAGE/CAGE-T and psychiatric interview (Saremi et al.)
  5. 5CAGE questionnaire only (Saremi et al.)