WHO. Listings of WHO’s response to COVID-19 2020. https://www.who.int/news/item/29-06-2020-covidtimeline.
WHO. WHO coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard. https://covid19.who.int
Behnoush AH, Ahmadi N, Mozafar M, Mirghaderi SP, Azad AJ, Houjaghan AK, et al. Anxiety, depression, and their contributing factors among nurses infected with COVID-19 in Iran: a cross-sectional study. Iranian Red Crescent Med J. 2022;24(2).
Cummings MJ, Baldwin MR, Abrams D, Jacobson SD, Meyer BJ, Balough EM, et al. Epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of critically ill adults with COVID-19 in New York city: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020;395(10239):1763–70.
Bandyopadhyay S, Baticulon RE, Kadhum M, Alser M, Ojuka DK, Badereddin Y, et al. Infection and mortality of healthcare workers worldwide from COVID-19: a systematic review. BMJ Global Health. 2020;5(12):e003097.
Shali M, Behnoush AH, Shabani EA, Khazaeipour Z. Individual and working experiences of healthcare workers infected with COVID-19 A qualitative study. Japan J Nursing Sci. 2022;19(2):12465.
Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017. Lancet 2018 392(10159):1789–858.
Schimmel J, Manini AF. Opioid use disorder and COVID-19: biological plausibility for worsened outcomes. Subst Use Misuse. 2020;55(11):1900–1.
Mansuri Z, Shah B, Trivedi C, Beg U, Patel H, Jolly T. Opioid use disorder treatment and potential interactions with novel COVID-19 medications: a clinical perspective. Primary Care Companion CNS Dis. 2020;22(4):27062.
Alexander GC, Stoller KB, Haffajee RL, Saloner B. An epidemic in the midst of a pandemic: opioid use disorder and COVID-19. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(1):57–8.
Becker WC, Fiellin DA. When epidemics collide: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the opioid crisis. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(1):59–60.
Qeadan F, Mensah NA, Tingey B, Bern R, Rees T, Madden EF, et al. The association between opioids, environmental, demographic, and socioeconomic indicators and COVID-19 mortality rates in the United States: an ecological study at the county level. Archiv Public Health. 2021;79(1):101.
Fond G, Pauly V, Leone M, Llorca PM, Orleans V, Loundou A, et al. Disparities in intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients with Schizophrenia and COVID-19: a national cohort study. Schizophr Bull. 2021;47(3):624–34.
Jeon HL, Kwon JS, Park SH, Shin JY. Association of mental disorders with SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe health outcomes: nationwide cohort study. Br J psychiatry J Mental Sci. 2021;218(6):344–51.
Wei Y, Shah R. Substance use disorder in the COVID-19 pandemic a systematic review of vulnerabilities and complications. Pharmaceuticals. 2020;13(7):155.
Kumar N, Janmohamed K, Nyhan K, Martins SS, Cerda M, Hasin D, et al. Substance use and substance use disorder, in relation to COVID-19: protocol for a scoping review. Syst Rev. 2021;10(1):48.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. BMJ. 2009;339: b2535.
GA Wells BS, D O'Connell, J Peterson, V Welch, M Losos, P Tugwell. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. 2000
Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ. 2003;327(7414):557–60.
Begg CB, Mazumdar M. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics. 1994;50(4):1088–101.
Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ. 1997;315(7109):629–34.
Baillargeon J, Polychronopoulou E, Kuo YF, Raji MA. The Impact of substance use disorder on COVID-19 outcomes. Psychiatr Serv. 2021;72(5):578–81.
Velásquez García HA, Wilton J, Smolina K, Chong M, Rasali D, Otterstatter M, et al. Mental health and substance use associated with hospitalization among people with COVID-19: a population-based cohort study. Viruses. 2021;13(11):2196.
Vallecillo G, Perelló R, Güerri R, Fonseca F, Torrens M. Clinical impact of COVID-19 on people with substance use disorders. J Public Health. 2021;43(1):9–12.
Allen B, El Shahawy O, Rogers ES, Hochman S, Khan MR, Krawczyk N. Association of substance use disorders and drug overdose with adverse COVID-19 outcomes in New York city: january-october 2020. J Public Health (Oxf). 2021;43(3):462–5.
Qeadan F, Tingey B, Bern R, Porucznik CA, English K, Saeed AI, et al. Opioid use disorder and health service utilization among COVID-19 patients in the US: a nationwide cohort from the cerner real-world data. EClinicalMedicine. 2021;37: 100938.
Wang QQ, Kaelber DC, Xu R, Volkow ND. COVID-19 risk and outcomes in patients with substance use disorders: analyses from electronic health records in the United States. Mol Psychiatry. 2021;26(1):30–9.
Jamali Z, Emamian MH, Hashemi H, Fotouh A. The association of opioid use disorder and COVID-19 in shahroud Iran. medrxiv. 2021;02(19):21252093.
Riahi T, Sadeghzadeh-Bazargan A, Shokri S, Ahmadvand D, Hassanlouei B, Baghestani A, et al. The effect of opium on severity of COVID-19 infection: an original study from Iran. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2021;35:115.
Joseph DPR, Krovvidi H. Non-respiratory functions of the lung. Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain. 2013;13(3):98–102.
Eisenstein TK. The role of opioid receptors in immune system function. Front Immunol. 2019;10:2904.
Plein LM, Rittner HL. Opioids and the immune system—friend or foe. Br J Pharmacol. 2018;175(14):2717–25.
Farhoudian A, Baldacchino A, Clark N, Gerra G, Ekhtiari H, Dom G, et al. COVID-19 and substance use disorders: recommendations to a comprehensive healthcare response an international society of addiction medicine practice and policy interest group position paper. Basic Clin Neurosci. 2020;11(2):133–50.
Saeedi M, Omrani-Nava V, Maleki I, Hedayatizadeh-Omran A, Ahmadi A, Moosazadeh M, et al. Opium addiction and COVID-19: truth or false beliefs. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2020;14(2):103509.
Volkow ND. Collision of the COVID-19 and addiction epidemics. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(1):61–2.
Melamed OC, Hauck TS, Buckley L, Selby P, Mulsant BH. COVID-19 and persons with substance use disorders: Inequities and mitigation strategies. Subst abuse. 2020;41(3):286–91.
de Bernardis E, Busà L. A putative role for the tobacco mosaic virus in smokers’ resistance to COVID-19. Med Hypotheses. 2020;143: 110153.
Mhatre S, Srivastava T, Naik S, Patravale V. Antiviral activity of green tea and black tea polyphenols in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19: a review. Phytomed Int J Phytother Phytopharmacol. 2021;85: 153286.
Enns A, Pinto A, Venugopal J, Grywacheski V, Gheorghe M, Kakkar T, et al. Substance use and related harms in the context of COVID-19: a conceptual model. Health Promot Chron Dis Prevention Canada Res Policy Pract. 2020;40(11–12):342–9.
Zheng Z, Peng F, Xu B, Zhao J, Liu H, Peng J, et al. Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. J Infect. 2020;81(2):e16–25.
Namba RS, Singh A, Paxton EW, Inacio MCS. Patient factors associated with prolonged postoperative opioid use after total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2018;33(8):2449–54.
Kobus AM, Smith DH, Morasco BJ, Johnson ES, Yang X, Petrik AF, et al. Correlates of higher-dose opioid medication use for low back pain in primary care. J Pain. 2012;13(11):1131–8.
Buckeridge D, Huang A, Hanley J, Kelome A, Reidel K, Verma A, et al. Risk of injury associated with opioid use in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58(9):1664–70.
Ataei M, Shirazi FM, Lamarine RJ, Nakhaee S, Mehrpour O. A double-edged sword of using opioids and COVID-19: a toxicological view. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2020;15(1):91.
Porubsky S, Kuppe C, Maier T, Birk HW, Wörnle M, Moeller MJ, et al. Renal lipidosis in patients enrolled in a methadone substitution program. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014;138(5):689–93.
Yamanaka T, Sadikot RT. Opioid effect on lungs. Respirology. 2013;18(2):255–62.
Roy S, Ninkovic J, Banerjee S, Charboneau RG, Das S, Dutta R, et al. Opioid drug abuse and modulation of immune function: consequences in the susceptibility to opportunistic infections. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol Off J Soc NeuroImmune Pharmacol. 2011;6(4):442–65.
García-Albéniz X, del Amo J, Polo R, Morales-Asencio JM, Hernán MA. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials of hydroxychloroquine for the prevention of COVID-19. Eur J Epidemiol. 2022;37(8):789–96.
Ayerbe L, Risco-Risco C, Forgnone I, Pérez-Piñar M, Ayis S. Azithromycin in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2022;77(2):303–9.
Chang KC, Huang CL, Liang HY, Chang SS, Wang YC, Liang WM, et al. Gender-specific differences in susceptibility to low-dose methadone-associated QTc prolongation in patients with heroin dependence. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2012;23(5):527–33.
Fonseca F, Marti-Almor J, Pastor A, Cladellas M, Farré M, de la Torre R, et al. Prevalence of long QTc interval in methadone maintenance patients. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;99(1–3):327–32.
Kim L, Garg S, O’Halloran A, Whitaker M, Pham H, Anderson EJ, et al. Risk factors for intensive care unit admission and in-hospital mortality among hospitalized adults identified through the US coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated hospitalization surveillance network (COVID-NET). Clin Infect Dis Off publ Infect Dis Soc Am. 2021;72(9):e206–14.
Petrilli CM, Jones SA, Yang J, Rajagopalan H, O’Donnell L, Chernyak Y, et al. Factors associated with hospital admission and critical illness among 5279 people with coronavirus disease 2019 in New York city: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2020;369: m1966.
Reilev M, Kristensen KB, Pottegård A, Lund LC, Hallas J, Ernst MT, et al. Characteristics and predictors of hospitalization and death in the first 11 122 cases with a positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 in Denmark: a nationwide cohort. Int J Epidemiol. 2020;49(5):1468–81.
Balaram K, Marwaha R, Kaelber DC. The effects of substance use on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection risks and outcomes. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2021;34(4):386–92.
Schwetz TA, Calder T, Rosenthal E, Kattakuzhy S, Fauci AS. Opioids and infectious diseases: a converging public health crisis. J Infect Dis. 2019;220(3):346–9.
Thompson MG, Stenehjem E, Grannis S, Ball SW, Naleway AL, Ong TC, et al. Effectiveness of covid-19 vaccines in ambulatory and inpatient care settings. N Engl J Med. 2021;385(15):1355–71.
Tenforde MW, Self WH, Adams K, Gaglani M, Ginde AA, McNeal T, et al. Association between mRNA vaccination and COVID-19 hospitalization and disease severity. JAMA. 2021;326(20):2043–54.
Rzymski P, Kasianchuk N, Sikora D, Poniedziałek B. COVID-19 vaccinations and rates of infections, hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and deaths in Europe during SARS-CoV-2 Omicron wave in the first quarter of 2022. J Med Virol. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.28131.
Vallecillo G, Durán X, Canosa I, Roquer A, Martinez MC, Perelló R. COVID-19 vaccination coverage and vaccine hesitancy among people with opioid use disorder in Barcelona. Spain Drug Alcohol Rev. 2022;41(6):1311–8.